Saturday, May 23, 2020
The perfectÃ¢â¬ ¦What? The human body is the most complex machine. The eyes can absorb many perceptions, emotions, feelings and ideas the first time someone sees a person. The human body reflects aesthetic qualities of beauty as well as power, financial and social status. In many cases, people can determinate how much money a person has by his or her appearance. Facial surgeries, breast implants, Botox or healthy teeth are the most common ways women improve their appearance with money in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. Ã¢â¬Å"The word beauty is understood to represent goodness, pleasure, truth, purity and the sublime.Ã¢â¬ (Karen A. Callaghan, VII) Clearly women and men feel the pressure of society to have the perfect body but should not be heavily influenced by the media, the fashion industry and the desire for career opportunities yet by the desire to maintain a healthy body and a vibrant lifestyle. Beauty which people naturally should admire is now a source of pain and something that has to be developed and fought. Women and men are willing to take any challenge to achieve what they call beautiful, in other words, the perfect body. Socially saying, these challenges can bring the best and the worst in people in how they can handle it. The media, mostly TV and advertisements had created the idea of how the body should be, what is in and what is out or what is beautiful and what is not. Sadly, as stated by Dr. Marie Hoskins, associate professor at the University of Victoria s School of Child and YouthShow MoreRelated Methods Of Prolonging Life Essay1187 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe commonly-interpreted explanation of aging and death, a sort of simple degeneration of the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s mechanical and chemical systems through time and usage, does not apply very well to the truth. The human body replaces every constituent atom naturally every seven years. Unlike machines, our bodies are in a constant state of self-repair and regulation, and it is the breakdown of the systems that govern these activities which concern gerentologists. The presently debated basic theories of aging centerRead MoreFever Body Defense Mechanism Of Fever Essay731 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Fever Body Defense Mechanism Fiordaliza Cruz-Perez Mercy College Fever a Body Defense Mechanism. Our first thought of fever is the association with a common cold, but in some cases fever can be symptoms of other types of infections. The human body is a complex and sophisticated machine, in which all of the components must maintain a complex balance in order to ensure optimal function. This is known as homeostasis and there are various homeostatic variables in which temperature is one of themRead MoreEssay On Do We Have A Mind959 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshave memories, and a sentimental emotion towards those memories. However how do we know if others have a mind, what makes it seem that their body inhabits one, and what justifies considering something human when it does or doesnt have a mind? In films like Blade Runner or Star Wars or any other Sci-Fi film we see machines and robots that talk. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s machines and computers talk as well but will they talk like we do? And by that I mean not necessarily having a specific voice or language because, sureRead MoreHow Technology Can Improve The Human Bodies986 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbecome cyborgs wonÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean that we will all feel superhuman. While these developments that have been made in the progress of improving the human bodies possess unbelievable potential to change many lives, but most of the enhanced needs to make some sacrifices to be augmented. Gabril Licina, who experimented with unlocking infrared vision in humans stated that Ã¢â¬Å"The myth to dispel is that with an augmentation, people will easily become superhuman. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important that we stay grounded in scientificRead MoreArt 141321 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages AR 103: Art Appreciation 12/2/13 Chapter 14-Nature, Knowledge, and Technology Goals and Objectives: To explore works of art which seek to imitate, admire, or judge the world around us. That world consists of animals and plants as well as human constructs: our knowledge systems our technology, and our cities. 1. What do we consider ideal in nature? 19.13, Little Bouquet in a Clay Jar, Jan Bruegel, 1599 In nature, bounteous displays and vivid colors are considered ideal, especially whenRead MoreThe Growth And The Complexity Of Thought Within Humans1449 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdefine Ã¢â¬Å"usÃ¢â¬ as humans. We have a larger brain, the ability to have and maintain a strong, straight posture for an extended amount of time, dexterous hands, the skill to use our facial muscles to our advantage in order to express our emotions, the potential to solve complex problems and relate with one another. Furthermore, what it means it means to be human stems from our greater social complexity, prolonged postnatal dependence, the command of symbolic language, and the strength humans possess in comparativeRead MoreArtificial Intelligence Essay658 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIntelligence is a broad topic, consisting of different fields, from machine vision to expert systems. Nowadays with the use of high level techniques, computers have been programmed to solve many difficult problems, but the products t hat are available today are only a sample of what is coming in the future. AI has an interesting history and has always been on the pioneering end of computer science. In order to classify machines as thinking, it is necessary to explain intelligence. WhatRead More`` A Cyborg Manifesto `` By Donna Haraway1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages We invented machines to fulfill our necessities. As machines get smarter in the 21th century, we give machines more permissions and freedom to do more things for us. However, the new generations that are born with all the advanced technologies they needed donÃ¢â¬â¢t quite understanding the use of machines as we are more relying on them. The machines are quickly expanding and replacing our brains and bodies even it is a simple task to do. But if we step back a little and think that we are the inventorsRead MoreArtificial Intelligence Essay1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbeing embedded in all of our life accessories like mobiles, watches, cars, even our bodies and brains there is no indication that this microchip speed will not be multiplied in the future. Over the last decade, these electronic tiny minuscule signals have fundamentally revolutionized the way we live. People are spending more hours per day with machines than humans. An amazing a human-machine relationship is developing. So far this bond has been one sided because the abilityRead MoreElectrolytes, Carbohydrates, And Proteins1606 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesminerals that are important to the body, and the ones that will be covered in this paper are electrolytes, carbohydrates, and proteins. The items listed above are vital to body functions in many ways; for example, electrolytes necessary for proper muscle contraction (Nordqvist 2013). Proteins are essentially what allow our bodies to function as they do, and carbohydrates provide us with the energy that allows it to function. Our body is an amazing and intricate machine, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s basically what it is
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Due to the extensive amount of harm that photo manipulation causes, it is an ethical issue. Digital photo manipulation in women causes widespread harm, long-lasting damage to women s self-esteem and other negative psychological thought processes. Research has also found that it causes a large number of eating disorders. It does this by making women chase the ideal, thin body image that is being portrayed in the different pictures and advertisements. There was a study done that examined both the thin-ideal and body classification. Results from this showed that viewing the thin-ideal lead to a higher level of body dissatisfaction (Whyte, Newman, Voss, 2016). Thereby this issue diminishes the autonomy of the viewers, uses models as aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A false idea of what one actually looks like is being portrayed within the photograph. They are providing the viewers with an inaccurate and unreliable picture. It is also important to know who the parties involved in this iss ue are. The company that decides to alter the image is first handedly involved in this matter. The model that is posing for the shot, which in this case are the women that are being altered, are also involved. Lastly, the viewers of the photograph, which includes all of society and their target audience of females are involved as well. Knowing the relevant laws when analyzing this issue is crucial as well. Given that the First Amendment grants people with the freedom of speech, these companies are allowed freedom of press as well. This allows the companies to do what they want with the images they have. They are allowed to advertise for their company however they choose, regardless of outside opinions on their methods. They can send whatever message, whether indirect or not to their audience without any restrictions. However there are some company policies that these businesses try to follow. First and foremost they try to market however they think will get them or their product the most attention. They do this at the cost of unethical photo manipulation. Some different companies such as Dove and Aerie have spoken out against this issue and have started campaigns of their own in response to it. TheShow MoreRelatedEssay on Silent Spring - Rachel Carson30092 Words Ã |Ã 121 PagesWorld War II led to the discovery o f substances that were lethal to insects. Whereas pre-war insecticides were simple compounds of naturally occurring minerals, the new synthetic pesticides are organic substances that have been carefully created by manipulation of molecules and atoms. Because they are organic, they can easily poison intended and unintended targets and become part of the bodily processes of numerous creatures. These substances work to stop the bodys natural functions; some of them mayRead MoreIbsen11859 Words Ã |Ã 48 Pagescharacter questions NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s use of money: Ã¢â¬Å"Bought, you say? All that there? Has the little spendthrift been out throwing money around again?Ã¢â¬ (44). The couple is immediately at odds in regards to financial matters. Nora feels a great freedom to spend money due to TorvaldÃ¢â¬â¢s anticipated salary raise: Ã¢â¬Å"Torvald, we can squander a little now. CanÃ¢â¬â¢t we? Just a tiny wee bit. Now that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a big salary and are going to make piles and pil es of money?Ã¢â¬ (44). Torvald dislikes spending and borrowing money and isRead MoreSience23554 Words Ã |Ã 95 Pagescarbon). The result is that humans are adding ever-increasing amounts of extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Because of this, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are higher today than they have been over the last half-million years or longer. Ã¢â¬âÃ The Carbon Cycle; The Human Role, Earth Observatory, NASA Another way of looking at this is with a simple analogy: consider salt and human health: Ã¢â¬ ¢ A small amount of salt is essential for human life; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Slightly more salt in ourRead MoreOnline Crime Reporting System17148 Words Ã |Ã 69 Pagesagain helps to maximize different tradeoffs for different users in different circumstances. IT offers the prospect of automating crime prevention Ã¢â¬â but beware of cutting out humans entirely: note that the digital camera has cut the possibility of photo development companies checking the actions of paedophiles. Security should be in depth, not reliant on a single and apparently impenetrable barrier. We need variety. Uniformity and convenient protocols put products and systems at risk of Ã¢â¬Ëcrack oneRead MoreAccounting Information System Chapter 1137115 Words Ã |Ã 549 Pagesall inflows and outflows from various funds, to ensure that legal requirements about the use of specific funds are followed. Financial institutions do not need extensive inventory control systems. Passenger service companies (e.g., airlines, bus, and trains) generally receive payments in advance of providing services. Therefore, extensive billing and accounts receivable procedures are not needed; instead, they must develop procedures to account for prepaid revenue. Construction firms typicallyRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesaddition, the following material is substantially revised and updated: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Case Incident (those not entirely new are revised and updated) Ã¢â¬ ¢ OB Poll (more than half are new to this edition) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ethical Dilemma (more than half are new to this edition) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Photos/captions (more than half are new to this edition) New feature: glOBalization!, which features organizational behavior in an international context. Improved integration of global implications: With the explosion of international research, global OBRead Morepreschool Essay46149 Words Ã |Ã 185 Pagesart. May expand critical asÃ sessment of visual art to include preferences for types of artwork or art activities. Examples Examples Ã¢â¬ ¢ When looking at a painting of a landscape, communicates, Ã¢â¬Å"I want to go there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ When viewing a photo of a Navajo rug, communiÃ cates, Ã¢â¬Å"I like it because the colors are pretty, and it has zigzag lines all over.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Indicates which paintings she likes best when prompted. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Asks, Ã¢â¬Å"Can I finger paint? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s my favorite.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Communicates, Ã¢â¬Å"IRead MoreInternational Management67196 Words Ã |Ã 269 Pagesthat students of international management understand what will be expected of them from the range of stakeholders with whom they interact and the ways in which technology and social media change the nature of global connections. Although we have extensive new, evidence-based material in this edition, as described below, we continue to strive to make the book even more userfriendly and applicable to practice. We continue to take a balanced approach in the eighth edition of International Management:Read MoreHbr When Your Core Business Is Dying74686 Words Ã |Ã 299 PagesFORETHOUGHT HBR CASE STUDY Why Didn t We Know? Ralph Hasson 45 FIRST PERSON Preparing for the Perfect Product Launch THOU SHALT Ã¢â¬ ¦page 58 James P. Hackett 111 TOOL KIT The Process Audit Michael Hammer 124 BEST PRACTICE Human Due Diligence David Harding and Ted Rouse 138 144 EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES PANEL DISCUSSION There are 193 countries in the world. None of them are energy independent. So whoÃ¢â¬â¢s holding whom over a barrel? The fact is, the vast ma jor the few energy-producinRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesof Utah for their work on the chapter on managing conflict; Cathy German of Miami University for her assistance in revising Supplement A, and John Tropman, University of Michigan, for taking the lead in revising Supplement C. Special thanks are also due to Susan Schor, Joseph Seltzer, and James Smither for writing the SSS Software In-Basket Exercise. Our long-time collaboration with Sue Campbell-Clark has been particularly fruitful and we anticipate that our work with Jeff Thompson, Brigham Young University
Monday, May 11, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 832 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/04/10 Category Culture Essay Level High school Topics: Cultural Identity Essay Did you like this example? What do we mean by the term subculture? Paul Hodkinson gives us a really broad definition in his book: Ã¢â¬ËGoth : Identity, Style and SubcultureÃ¢â¬â¢ as he says: Ã¢â¬Å"Acquisition of status within the subculture entailed being labelled and, hence, excluded from the rest of society, something the group would respond to through its own hostility to outsiders, to the extent that non-conformity with dominant norms often became virtuous. As the subculture became more substantive, distinctive and independent, members would become increasingly dependent on each other for social contact and validation of their beliefs and way of life.Ã¢â¬ (Hodkinson, Paul. Goth: Identity, Style and Subculture, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2002. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Why is Style so Important For Subcultural Identities" essay for you Create order ProQuest Ebook Central). For decades there have been a lot of theories and a lot of opinions on what is right and what is wrong. As he states in his book there are several schools that stand out the most in terms of subculture. One of them, in fact, is the Birmingham School. Mostly know from a neo-Marxist perspective, itÃ¢â¬â¢s mostly looked at from the position of the working-class young generation, in relation to the social culture of the 1960s and 1970s in Britain. It is built on the resistance of young people having the traditional values and believes of their parents and creating the modern hegemonic culture of consumption that is dominated by the media and trends. Knowingly forming these subcultures that are characterized by parlance and ritual, although the youth maintained their aspects of the working-class culture, that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop them from embracing the decadent consumption and insistence on taste and style reflecting their position within capitalist society. Although their consumption, unlike the general publicÃ¢â¬â¢s, by the youths subcultural context itÃ¢â¬â¢s deemed for them to be characterized by everyday objects and new subversive meanings. Looking at the approach of The Birmingham School, there is a lot of neglect of counte nances such as diversity, external overlay, individuality between subcultures and identified instability of the groups. As well looking at the schools neo-Marxist view as an instinctive response to the structural contradictions, more importantly, underestimating the positivity of media and business in the development of such groupings. As itÃ¢â¬â¢s well known one of the most significant things that the subculture has is their authentic style and most clothing and music. The birth of goth was around the first half of the 1980s, specifically in Britain there were a lot of sounds and images based on the post-punk climate that it became a definite movement. As its known there are a lot of various factors that were involved insignificance of goth but music has always been the base of the subculture. One of the significant bands at the time has been Siouxsie and the Banshees as it took a bit of the theme of punk the genre provided general mood and sounds that would be drawn of for the following decades. The vocalist of the band had a really big part of the initial style of the gothÃ¢â¬â¢s in that time p eriod. The outrageous at the time Nazi imagery that was advertised seemed politically provocative, with the Ã¢â¬ËdarkÃ¢â¬â¢ distinguishing image that she was pursuing with her black backcombed hair and really heavy dark eye make-up, the lips as well. That particular look would be imitated by females and male goths for the following two decades. However, the most important point of goth, was probably the band Bauhaus with their single Ã¢â¬ËBela LugosiÃ¢â¬â¢s Dead Ã¢â¬â¢ particularly the performance of the song, and a lot of their set, had most of the distinctive elements that until this day they exist in the still the goth scene, from the funereal musical tone to the lyrical references for death, from the deep vocals to a twisted form of androgyny in the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s appearances. Associating themselves with not only the band but other particular listeners of the same type of music. The start of a subculture and resistance against the capitalistic society and its rules. Knowing the importance of clothing and asserorizing in the goth world: Ã¢â¬ËThe selection, purchase and consumption of particular kinds of subcultural goods, most notably recorded music, clothing and accessories, was a key element in participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ ex perience of the goth scene. To a significant extent, it was through ownership and use of consumer goods that goths claimed their subcultural capital, differentiating themselves subtly from one another and more overtly from groupings and individuals outside the subculture. Collections of commodities provided the material manifestation of the subculture Ã¢â¬â¢ s distinctive range of tastes. The process through which individuals developed their subcultural Ã¢â¬Ë look Ã¢â¬â¢ and enhanced their knowledge and appreciation of music revolved around selecting, purchasing, combining and using particular kinds of object, as did the consistency and distinctiveness of the goth style as a whole. Furthermore, as well as being crucial as a means to an end, the act of shopping was often an important subcultural activity in itself (see McRobbie 1989: 24; Shields 1992a: 5).Ã¢â¬â¢(Hodkinson, Paul. Goth : Identity, Style and Subculture, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2002. ProQuest Ebook Central).
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Probation Officer and Offender role has been widely examined, specifically in regards to the effective management of risk (McNeill, 2009, NOMS 2010). Within this, it is recognised that the relationship between these individuals is paramount to the effective management of risk and offending behaviour. There have been numerous working practices introduced throughout the years within the Probation Service to identify effective working practices including the Effective Practice Principles and latterly, Skills for Effective Engagement, Development and Supervision known by the acronym SEEDS (Rex Hosking, 2013). Whilst these have greatly influenced the work being undertaken by Probation practitioners, the management of risk ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦BP is unable to work as a result of injuries sustained to his left leg and hand through previous violent acts. Additional to this, BP is an alcohol dependent individual who has been in relapse for approximately 12 months. BP is subject to an Indeterminate Public Protection (IPP) life licence for the offence of Wounding with Intent. This offence occurred in 2005, at a time when his alcohol consumption as at its heaviest and was Ã¢â¬Å"sofa surfingÃ¢â¬ with associates he met as previous supported accommodation sourced through the Salvation Army. The circumstances of the offence were that BP and his associate had been drinking constantly throughout the day in the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s flat and that an argument broke out over the level of music being played by BP. Feeling aggrieved by this, BP asked the victim to step outside for a fight. As a result of BP feeling ignored by the victim through the nil response, BP took the knife that he was holding and lunged towards the victim stabbing him in the neck before dragging the knife downwards on the neck. Subsequently, BP tried to stab the victim in the chin before retreating and apologising. In reviewing BPÃ¢â¬â¢s antecedents he has 28 convictions for 48 sep arate offences. Pertinent to the index offence are those committed in 1980 for section 47 assault, breach of the peace numerous times between 1981 and 1995, possession of a bladed article in a public place in 1997 and a further section 47 assault in 1998.
Martin Luther King was the main figure in the Civil Rights Movement; he was the civil right activist leader and had an influence of the American society. King believed in non-violent protest and used it to overcome justice, kingÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of non-violent protest came from GhandiÃ¢â¬â¢s idea, and he thought Ghandi was the great man of all times. King also believed that all man and woman are equal; he was the most important voice of the civil rights movement. We will write a custom essay sample on How important was Martin Luther King? or any similar topic only for you Order Now King was brave to stand up and give up segregation laws and tried to get rid of segregation laws, Martin Luther King was proud of his race, in 1958 after King was stabbed in Harlem he had said Ã¢â¬Ëmy cause, my race, is worth dying forÃ¢â¬â¢, this source is useful for proving that he will do anything for his race and do whatever it takes to bring freedom across black Americans. King wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t afraid and he still carried on fighting for more freedom after he was stabbed and survived. Martin Luther King was important of bringing improvements in the African- American Civil Rights because he brought equality to America and progress to the civil rights movement. In 1957 he helped setting up the (SCLC) and believed that non-violent protest should be used in the struggle for equality. King helped places like Birmingham to reduce the amount of racism. There had been lots of racism in Birmingham, King described Birmingham as AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëworst big cityÃ¢â¬â¢ for racism. He wanted to improve the amount of racism in Birmingham, the SCLC arranged a march, and king was leading rather than led. The confrontation used tactics like sit- in and marches so that they can gain more publicity across the USA. King became more popular and people liked him, but those who disagreed with the equal right movement hated king. King gained goverment support, Kings effort led to the march on washington in 1963, where King delivered his speech Ã¢â¬ËI have a dreamÃ¢â¬â¢. In 1965, King led a campaign to resgister black people to vote. How to cite How important was Martin Luther King?, Papers
Musee Des Beaux Arts Essay Paper The poem, Muse des Beaux Arts written by Aden, is a poem that explores how people respond to tragedy and the struggles that they go through in life experiences. The poems title is Greene for Museum of Vine Arts which is located in Brussels. The poem is written in a way that it seems that it is two separate poems. Muse des Beaux Arts is a poem Mitten in free verse. This means that the poem is free of meter, regular rhythm, or a rhyme scheme. This poem has varying line lengths and an irregular rhyme pattern. In Addends poem, his long regular lines, subtly enforced by the irregular end rhyme pattern, create a casual, conversational air more prosaic than poetic. The casual, easy. Going argument the tone suggests is ironic for the topic of discussion, the human position and its seeming indifference to suffering is anything but light and easygoing. Addends poem is distinguished by two parts which relate to one another much like the octave and sestets of a sonnet. The poem is marked by a definite break or turn in thought, The first thirteen lines of the poem introduce the poems theme and discuss it in general term, while the second halt tooth memo develops and illustrates the general idea with a specific example, In the poem Muse des beaux arts, the line which starts In Burlesques Circus.. seems to interrupt the flow of the whole poem, nearly making it two separate poems. The poet mentions in his poem that most great artists only notice the details they want and what is pleasing to their eyes. We will write a custom essay on Musee Des Beaux Arts Paper specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now These artists put there focus only on what they find important and not the whole story. The poet observed that the focus of the painting Vass on the sun, the delicate ship and the green water, with Circus in the background drowning. In Muse des Beaux Arts, Aden is comparing Circus to a martyr suffering, or is making a point about suffering itself, that suffering takes place while someone else is eating, or opening a Window, like the farmer in the field While Circus was drowning. Addends poem Muse des Beaux Arts gives a simple, yet accurate description of the Burghers painting The Fall Of Circus. The way the poet describes the painting would make easy for anyone who hadnt seen the painting to understand the scene being depicted. This poem seems to me to be depressing in a way because t appears that Aden has come to a realization that people dont care or dont take the time to notice when someone is suffering or when someone has died. Everyone from his point of view seems to act as if they are aloof to any such thing entirely. Also think that Aden is telling us how unfortunate he feels it is when the unprepared, innocent people die, and the long-lived, well prepared to die people, dont. This poem had some great references in it such as the imagery it created. Did find the poem a bit depressing by the way it slammed human tauter. Aden tells us that suffering takes place / while someone else is eating or opening a window or just walking dully along. In other words, an individuals greatest moments of suffering, tribulation and (by extension) triumphs are widely ignored by others. Not only do others not care, but in most cases they dont even notice. The suggestion is that one should do things for ones self, not for recognition or appreciation from others since that will likely never come. The significance of Circus flight and fall are entirely lost on all but IM and his father. Another point Aden may be making is that we should be less focused on ourselves in order to appreciate/learn from others rather than always focus on our arguably less significant lives, like plowing fields. Perhaps then we could learn something from Circus ill-fated attempts at flight. Then again, most Of us Will never attempt to fly nor find need Of the lessons Circus could teach us more evidence that if one doesnt appreciate what ones doing, life quickly loses any significance we might want to attribute to it.
Thursday, April 30, 2020
What is the global role of the WTO Essay The paper contains a discussion about the roles of WTO. The roles of WTO in promoting international trade, globalization, good interrelationships and dispute resolution have been explained. The background about the organization has been provided to link its role with the mandate provided by its founders. The current issues affecting the organization such as the global recession of the 2007-2009 have been discussed to explain how the organization has intervened in the problem. Criticisms of the organization have been discussed towards the end of the essay to show the shortfalls affecting it.IntroductionMany leaders of the world felt that after the World War II, trade was the only tool that could be used to reverse the negative trends of the war. They developed multilateral organizations to control trade between different countries of the world. Several agreements on trade were created to enhance the member countries practice favorable trade. Most of the economies had been closed befor e and during the war to avoid the ripple effects of poor economic practices from foreign countries. The establishment of the trade agreements led to the removal of many trade barriers which had been placed. WTO was created to monitor the activities of trade among the countries in the global scene. Since its establishment, the organization has played the role of negotiating trade agreements and assisting the poor countries. The organization has also helped in the economic recovery of many countries after the global recession that affected the world economies recently (World Trade Organization, 2010).Role of WTO in promoting international tradeWorld Trade Organization (WTO) was created to control trade between the member countries. Currently the organization has 152 member countries. More than 95 percent of the world trade is regulated by WTO (Fergusson, 2008). After the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was abolished, WTO was established. The organization was founded in 1 995 to take over the activities of GATT. After the World War II, countries discussed ways of promoting economic development through trade. Open trade was among the key factors discussed as a tool to enhance trade through removal of discriminatory trade barriers (World Trade Organization, 2010).WTO has its headquarters located in Geneva. More than 625 staffs are employed at the headquarters to control the activities of the organization. The organization had a budget of approximately $152 million in 2007 (Fergusson, 2008). A Director-General heads the organization. Pascal Lamy of France currently holds the position of the Director-General. The member countries make decisions about the operations of the organization. The staff of WTO has no mandate to make any decision. A consensus system is used to make decisions but not a formal vote. A Ministerial Conference makes high-level policy decisions. The conference is composed of representatives from the member countries and they meet after two years. The General Council has members drawn from all the member countries. They make operational decisions and they meet each month.Ã Ã Ã The rules of WTO are revised regularly through negotiations (rounds) to create new ones to accommodate the changing trade climate. The developing nations benefit more from the negotiations since most of the agreements are established to improve the economic status of the developing countries (World Trade Organization, 2010).The current situation of WTOA new round of multilateral trade negotiations was started at the Doha meeting in 2001 during the fourth Ministerial Conference of WTO. Negotiations about trade in agriculture and trade in services have been going on for a long period of time. Greater trade liberalization has been the main agenda of the rounds as the developed nations seek a free market system in the international market. The September 11th terrorists attack in America encouraged the member countries to establish negotia tions about reducing the effects of economic recession and terrorism (Sally, 2003).Several regional agreements have been established under WTO to enhance trade. By 2007, 385 regional trade agreements had been created. Currently only 197 are operational (Fergusson, 2008). Trade agreements are more effective in opening trade between countries. They are easier to negotiate and provide more liberalization. However, these negotiations violate the nondiscriminatory principles of WTO. Developing countries have been disadvantaged by the establishment of the regional agreements since they cannot access the markets in developed countries (Sally, 2003; World Trade Organization 2010).The Doha meeting discussed the issues relating to the global recession, terrorists activities and the increasing number of trade agreements. Other issues discussed were improving trade in agriculture and trade in services. Agreement on Trade Related Intellectual Property rights (TRIPS) was amended. The interest of the developing nations has been a major concern since the developed countries have dominated discussions in the past rounds (World Trade Organization, 2010).Role of WTO in trade dispute resolutionWTO is involved in settling disputes concerning trade between countries. As countries trade with each other, conflicts come up and WTO is used as a mediator to solve such disputes. The organization has the power to mediate trade disputes among the member countries. Some of the trade disputes relate to bad trade policies adopted by some countries upon others. WTO acts as a custodian to international law and uses the international law on trade to enforce the international trade laws. Countries which disobey the rules encounter sanctions which may hinder them from operating in the international trade. All countries have an obligation to follow the rules provided by WTO (Information for Development Program. 2010).Role of WTO in improving international relationsInternational relations refer to t he co-existence between two or more countries. Private businesses, governments, international investors and other parties are involved in the transactions of international business. WTO helps the countries of the world interact peacefully with each other. This has reduced conflicts which may arise due to differences in culture and other aspects. WTO helps international leaders unite in the fight against terrorism. Many countries have developed a system of establishing a common pool of ideas. Sharing in ideas among the countries has improved peace in the world. WTO settles disputes arising from bad trade practices. Such disputes if not controlled may result into war which can cause a lot of destruction. When countries are at peace with each other, international trade becomes more possible and exchange of goods and services is enhanced. Good international relationships have enhanced economic growth and development of the countries of the world. Economic growth and development is descr ibed as the increase in the wealth, infrastructure and the living standards of the people living in a country. When countries are at peace with each other, they can participate properly in trade and create more wealth. Conflicts between countries lead to destruction of property and poor trade. WTO has encouraged peaceful coexistence between countries and this has been a factor which has promoted growth and development of many economies (World Trade Organization, 2010).Role of WTO in globalizationWTO has been involved in the globalization of many economies in the world. Regulation about the global activities has been done by WTO to ensure fare practices are exercised by the countries of the world. Globalization refers to the opening up of the international boundaries and the exchange of information between different countries. Globalization has improved the exchange of technologies and knowledge between countries. As economies become open more people with skills can move to other cou ntries where there is high market potential for their labor. The public sector alone cannot accommodate all the skilled labor in a country and trade provides more employment opportunities for the people in a nation. The introduction of the internet has increased efficiency in trade by enabling people transfer information more easily. Trade attracts private investment and this generates more capital in the economy. The gross domestic product of a country increases with increase in global trade. Growth and development of an economy is accelerated by trade since more income is generated and the living standards of the people are improved (Daniels, Radebaugh Sullivan, 2007).Poverty levels in both developing and developed countries have declined by greater margins due to participation of countries in the international trade. Economies have acquired more wealth and the gross domestic product of countries has improved. WTO has become the custodian of international law on trade. The enforc ement of trade laws about good trade practices has been possible after the creation of WTO. The establishment of regional and multilateral trade agreements was experienced after WTO was created. This has encouraged many countries remove barriers to trade (World Trade Organization 2010).Regulation of the 2007-2009 economic recessions by WTOThe financial crisis was initiated by poor lending practices of the U.S. banks. The subprime mortgage industry failed and caused many other sectors of the economy to fail. Subprime mortgages are policies which have a high risk of default. Subprime borrowers are the people with low incomes and have a poor credit history. They have higher risk of default compared to the prime borrowers. The crisis started with the rise in prices for basic products due to the international increase in fuel prices. The prices of oil and food products increased within a short duration leading to an economic crisis which affected many people in the US. The prices for man y products increased and inflation was experienced all over the country. Many subprime borrowers had low incomes and the rise in prices for basic products increased the expenses for their living. Many companies retrenched employees to accommodate the increasing production costs. The borrowers were unable to repay the loans resulting to massive defaults. More than 100 subprime mortgage intermediaries filed for bankruptcy. Reacquisition of the houses from the defaulters caused a lot of people to become homeless (Platt, 2008).The US government had deregulated the real estate mortgages leading to massive investment in subprime mortgages. This caused the risky lending of subprime mortgages. The sub-prime mortgages were initially not popular but they became widely used in the 1990s. The climax of the sub prime mortgages was in 2006 when they accounted for more than 21 percent of all mortgages traded in the US market. The value of subprime mortgages in 2006 was valued at $600 billion. Many subprime mortgage intermediaries were established to reap the benefits of the expanding industry (Stapledon, 2009).The world economies have experienced a major decline due to poor performance of many industries. This is a crisis which has affected all sectors of the economy.Ã Williams (2009) claims that the crisis was initiated by the subprime mortgage lending crisis in the US. The banking sector issued many loans to subprime mortgage intermediaries. Due to the expanding market in the sub prime mortgage market, many banks issued unsecured loans to the intermediaries. The climax of the boom was reached in 2007 when the prices of products started to increase and many subprime mortgage lenders were unable to repay their loans. This led to massive default of debts and banks registered huge losses. This reduced the lending capacity of many banks. The resulting effect was lack of credit in the economy and the collapse of many companies (Stapledon, 2009).The World Trade Organization ha s negotiated with the oil producing countries to reduce the oil prices as one of the measures to reduce the effects of the crisis. The global oil prices increased causing the prices of many products to rise. The high product prices caused inflation in the whole world. WTO has also encouraged trade by persuading some countries remove the trade barriers they had placed upon their trade partners when the crisis was at climax (Stephen, 2008).Criticisms of WTOThe developed nations have dominated the activities and policies of WTO. For example, according to Anderson (2005)With decision-making based on a consensus system, so each member has equal decision-making power, the WTO is held to be the most democratic of all the international institutions with a global mandate. In practice, however, the working methods of the WTO lack transparency, inclusiveness and equity, (pp. 431).There have been conflicts as the developing nations are becoming concerned about the great influence the developed nations have on the decisions in these organization. The interests of each country should be represented during the negotiations to ensure that conflicts do not arise afterwards (Amadeo, 2010). Despite the establishment of the trade organizations, many countries continue to place more trade discrimination measures upon other countries. They include not just trade taxes-cum-subsidies but also contingent protection measures such as anti-dumping, regulatory standards that can be technical barriers to trade, and domestic production subsidies, Anderson (2005, pg. 415). Many trade distortions have occurred since the global economies were established.ConclusionWTO has been successful in improving trade between the member countries. More regional and multilateral trade agreements have been established after the creation of WTO. The developed countries have dominated discussions at the Ministerial Conferences of WTO. International trade has been effective in alleviating poverty. Economies ha ve expanded their operations and more GDP has been generated by countries with improved systems of international trade. Poverty still affects many countries in the world and much effort need be done to address the issue. Globalization has increased trade between nations and has also enabled access to many technologies and knowledge about production. Trade has been used as a tool for alleviating poverty in many countries. International relationships have improved with the introduction of the WTO. The organization has encouraged the member countries interact with each other to enhance understanding. The global recession was brought to a halt by WTO when it intervened in the global economic systems which had caused the failure of many economies. The organization has promoted the economic growth and development of many economies as well as encouraging international peace. The activities of WTO have been criticized for the excess domination by the developed countries. This remains a barr ier to the achievement of the goals of WTO.