Sunday, October 13, 2019
The Role of Women in Their Eyes Were Watching God and Go Tell It On the Mountain Ã Ã Historically, the job of women in society is to care for the husband, the home, and the children. As a homemaker, it has been up to the woman to support the husband and care for the house; as a mother, the role was to care for the children and pass along cultural traditions and values to the children. These roles are no different in the African-American community, except for the fact that they are magnified to even larger proportions. The image of the mother in African-American culture is one of guidance, love, and wisdom; quite often the mother is the shaping and driving force of African-American children. This is reflected in the literature of the African-American as a special bond of love and loyalty to the mother figure. Just as the role of motherhood in African-American culture is magnified and elevated, so is the role of the wife. The literature reflects this by showing the African-American man struggling to make a living for himself and his family with his wife either being emotionally or physically submissive. Understanding the role of women in the African-American community starts by examining the roles of women in African-American literature. Because literature is a reflection of the community from which it comes, the portrayal of women in Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937) and James Baldwin's Go Tell it on the Mountain (1952) is consistent with the roles mentioned above. Ã Their Eyes Were Watching God is a good place to start examining the roles of African-American women. It is written by a woman, Zora Neale Hurston, and from a woman's perspective. This book examines the relationship between Janie and... ... Ã Ã Works Cited and Consulted Baldwin, James. Go Tell it on the Mountain (1952). New York: Bantam-Dell, 1952. Bourn, Byron D. "Women's Roles in Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God and James Baldwin's Go Tell It On the Mountain" Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937). : Urbana, Ill.: U of Illinois P, 1937. Kubitschek, Missy Dehn. " 'Tuh de Horizon and Back': The Female Quest in Their Eyes Were Watching God." Modern Critical Interpretations: Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. Pondrom, Cyrena N. "The Role of Myth in Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God." American Literature 58.2 (May 1986): 181-202. Williams, Shirley Anne. Forward. Their Eyes Were Watching God. By Zora Neale Hurston. New York: Bantam-Dell, 1937. xv. Ã Ã
Saturday, October 12, 2019
Hoover Dam Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Hoover Dam is one of AmericaÃ ¡Ã ¦s greatest civil engineering marvels (Hernan 22) and Ã ¡Ã §has become a magnet to those fascinated by human ingenuity at its bestÃ ¡Ã ¨ (Haussler 30). With its enormous size and construction during the Great Depression, it was an interesting topic to me. I would like to major in civil engineering and, at first, I was researching this topic. I was looking for salary and job descriptions. Then, I discovered the name John L. Savage, the engineer who supervised the design of the Hoover Dam and many other dams in the United States. Savage worked on the Minidoka irrigation project in Idaho after joining the United States Reclamation Service in 1903. His future of building dams first began "When I first went out to the Snake River Valley,Ã ¡Ã ¨ he said, Ã ¡Ã §I saw only a river and a lot of wasteland. After the dam was up the land changed. It got water. Farmers moved in to work the soil. Crops grew. Then came villages and t owns. That's why I think this is the happiest, most thrilling work in the worldÃ ¡Ã ¨ (qtd. in McCann). The characteristics he describes are evident to me, as well as other people in this field. All of the great buildings and projects of the World were overseen by civil engineers. These water resources projects, such as the Hoover Dam, not only disturbed the flow of rivers but created towns, industries, and even developed a desert region. Unfortunately, the dams can also cause adverse effects. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Colorado River may have been Ã ¡Ã §too thick to drink [and] too wet to plowÃ ¡Ã ¨ (Boris 4) but, it was not too strong to dam. The Boulder Canyon Project was first conceived in 1928 (Wassner 98) and was approved for flood control, storage of the Colorado River water, and the production of hydroelectric power (Hoover Dam - FAQs). John R. Hall explains that the Hoover dam was built Ã ¡Ã §to harness the awesome power of the Colorado RiverÃ ¡Ã ¨ (22). The Department of Reclamation had a huge task on their hands when supervising the construction of the Hoover Dam (Hall 22), previously known as Boulder Dam and changed to Hoover Dam for President Herbert Hoovers strong support of a Dam on the Colorado River (Wassner 97). First, before even breaking ground, there had to be away to easily access the dam site and house the six-thousand workers who will build the great dam. Boulder City was created to house the Government and contractor ... ...Ã ¡Ã §Dam One OfÃ ¡Ã ¨). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã With HooverÃ ¡Ã ¦s seventeen generators and extremely large water supply, cities were able to grow very rapidly. The hydroelectric turbines produce four billion kilowatt hours of electricity per year. According to the American Society of Engineers, the dam has had a huge part in the development of the southwestern United States (American Society). It has stopped flooding, provided water for human consumption and agriculture, and supplied electricity to three states, according to Wassner: Arizona, Nevada, and California (99). Amazingly, power hungry Las Vegas only receives one percent of the power from Hoover Dam. For having such a great impact on the lives of Americans the American Society of Civil Engineers honored the Hoover dam as the Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium. Written on September 27, 2001 the article states Ã ¡Ã §The new millennium reminds us of the tremendous impact civil engineering has had on the development of our society [. . .] It is fitting that the Hoover Dam would be chosen by ASCE for this special honor. [The dam] ushered in a new era of confidence in the design and building of great water resource projectsÃ ¡Ã ¨ (American Society).
Friday, October 11, 2019
The concept of organisational commitment (OC) is not easy to describe. By studying the literature on OC it becomes apparent that there is little consensus as to the meaning of the term. As the area has grown and developed, researchers from various disciplines have ascribed their own meaning to the topic. This is one of the reasons why defining OC is difficult. One definition is Ã¢â¬Å"Giving all of yourself while at workÃ¢â¬ (Martin and Nicolls). This definition is not very specific nor is it precise. A second definition says that work commitment come into being Ã¢â¬Å"When a person, by making a side-bet, links extraneous interests with a consistent line of activity.Ã¢â¬ (Becker, 1960) This definition focuses mainly on activities and behaviour in OC. A third definition explains OC as Ã¢â¬Å"an attitude or an orientation towards the organisation which links or attaches the identity of the person to the organisation.Ã¢â¬ (Sheldon, 1971) The two last definitions differ from each other in their understanding of OC. The second focuses mainly on behaviour while the third is more based on attitude and identification. A good definition should cover the attitudinal-behavioural dichotomy and one definition that does that is Richard T Mowday et al's (1982) definition: This definition represents something more than the previous because it says that OC goes beyond mere passive loyalty to an organisation. It sees commitment to an organisation as an active relationship with the organisation such that individuals are willing to give something of themselves in order to contribute to the organisation's well being. Mowday's definition can be characterised by at least three factors: Ã · A strong belief in and acceptance of the organisation's goals and values Ã · A willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organisation and Ã · A strong desire to maintain membership in the organisation Mowday's definition also has some weaknesses. Firstly it is important to notice that this definition does not prelude the possibility that individuals will also be committed to other aspects of their environment. It simply asserts that regardless of these other possible commitments the organisationally committed individual will tend to exhibit the three characteristics identified. Secondly, the definition doesn't clarify the terms Ã¢â¬Ëidentification with' and Ã¢â¬Ëinvolvement in'. It can be discussed whether this is a good definition since the terms may be understood as ambiguous. Although this is not an ideal definition of OC, it is a definition that gives a good understanding and explanation of what OC is. Furthermore, Staw (77) differentiates between 2 different types of OC. Attitudinal commitment: Refers to commitment rooted in an employee's identification with the particular value system upheld by the co, and a desire to continue working there. Behavioural commitment on the other hand, comes about through a consistent pattern of action by an employee over a period of time, and the way in which s/he tends to become bound by this behaviour and hence reluctant to change. The point made here is that attitudinal commitment should lead to behavioural commitment and behavioural to attitudinal. Understanding this, we will examine in part 3 possible ways managers in which look to initially generate OC. There are several possible reasons why managers should want work commitment in their workforce. Drennan suggest that most managers believe that with real commitment from staff the performance of their business could improve dramatically. Beside an increased performance the work will also be a better place to work. The empirical studies carried out on the topic of OC represent a rich collection of findings with respect to both the antecedents and the consequences of the construct. Here is a short explanation of five possible outcomes that has been studied. Few important correlations have emerged in studies, although the correlations are consistently in a predicted direction and often reached statistical significance. (Mowday et al., 1974; Porter, Crampon, & Smith, 1976; Steers, 1977a) Therefore we should expect commitment to influence the amount of effort an employee puts forth on the job and this efforts should have some influence on actual performance. Committed employees are desirous of remaining with the organisation. Highly significant, positive correlations have been found between increased tenure and increases commitment in Mowday 1974 and Steer 1977 studies. Theory would predict that highly committed employees would be more motivated to attend so they could facilitate organisational goal attainment. Modest support can be found in several studies like F.J. Smith, 1977; Steers, 1977a, but this support is not entirely consistent (Angle & Perry, 1981). When an employee's commitments lie outside the organisation (e.g. hobby, family), less internal pressure would be exerted on the employee to attend (Morgan & Herman, 1976). We could say that commitment may represent an influence on attendance motivation. In a study by Angle and Perry (1981), commitment was found to be strongly and inversely related to employee tardiness. The theory underlying the construct suggests that highly committed employees are likely to engage in behaviours consistent with their attitudes toward the organisation. Coming to work on time would certainly represent one such behaviour. The strongest or most predictable behavioural outcome of employee commitment should be reduced turnover, which are shown in five studies. (Angle & Perry, 1981, Hom et al., 1979; Koch & Steers, 1978; Mowday et al., 1979; Steers, 1977a) In a sixth study, a longitudinal design was used to track commitment levels over time among a sample of psychiatric technicians. (Porter et al., 1974) Again commitment was found to be significantly and inversely related to subsequent turnover. Using the model suggested by Mowday et al, we look at the development of OC in 3 stages. What should be clear here is the significance of the early part of the company's relationship with an employee in seeking OC. Here we refer in particular to recruitment and induction practices of the firm. Employee characteristics: Choose people whose values, beliefs, etc in some way fit with those of the firm. The role of this Ã¢â¬Ëfit' in securing attitudinal commitment is significant Employee Expectations: Make sure these correspond with the realities of the job Job Design: Increase scope leads to increased commitment. Important dimensions inc: variety, autonomy, feedback, significance, challenge. Ã¢â¬â Participation, group work, and interdependence of tasks leads to commitment thru greater involvement and also increased felt responsibility Ã¢â¬â Make work challenging: Will attract those individuals who value work and bring an attitude of achievement to the organisation. Management and structure: Integration and supportive/open management Ã¢â¬â Loosen tight supervision and give employees more discretion Reward System: Internal labour market Organisational characteristics: Co must be seen as protecting the workers' interests while offering employment stability. Socialising employees is also important here, altho little research has been done on either its implementation of its usefulness. Increasing focus on behavioural commitment 1. Employees' jobs more likely to inc those dimensions mentioned above in Ã¢â¬ËJob design' 2. Higher extrinsic awards + increased value of investments made by employee 3. Workers generally more socialised in the co Note: A major factor in influencing OC which has been ignored deliberately is that of personal experiences and histories that employees bring with them from previous jobs, etc. as this is beyond the scope of management intervention. In this essay we have mainly argued that organisational commitment is good and we have explained why manager should want it in their workforce. It is also evident that having a strong committed workforce has its advantages. One thing we have not mentioned is the disadvantages of a committed workforce. Randall (1987) used the term Ã¢â¬Å"blindÃ¢â¬ commitment in describing a workforce that was too committed. If you are too committed it can lead employees to accept the status quo even if the ultimately means that the company loses its ability to innovate and adapt to change. Another possible drawback to commitment can be illustrated by the example of a mediocre employee who has been at for a particular org for some time and who would struggle to get another job elsewhere. In this case, we assume s/he would be committed to his/her job so as not to risk losing it. In this way, this paper, having shown that there are many reasons why managers may wish to secure OC and how it can be achieved, has also highlighted some potential drawbacks that managers should be aware of.
Thursday, October 10, 2019
Choose two countries and compare their approaches to early childhood care and education. This essay will introduce and compare approaches to early childhood care and education in Denmark and Ireland. It will specifically focus on comparing the pedagogical approach, curriculum content and the inclusion of ethnic minority children aged 0-6 years attending early childhood settings in both countries. Provision of Services As one of the oldest nations within Europe, Denmark has made the welfare of families with children top priority within government. Under their Social Services Act, mattersÃ¢â¬â¢ relating to the care and education of children is broken down. The Ministry of Social Services is responsible for day care facilities Ã¢â¬â dagtilbud, while the Ministry of Education is responsible for pre-school services Ã¢â¬â bornehaveklasse, primary and lower secondary and afterschool services and forest kindergartens are also available. These services are based on the rights of children outlined in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (OECD, 2000). In Denmark children are not required to enter the primary school sector until they are seven years old. In Ireland, there has been very little funding and resources into the development of childcare provisions with many working families relying on family members or child-minders filling the gap. Full day care exists at a cost and sessional services either morning or afternoon are in operation. In 2010, the Office of the Minister for Children and Youth Affairs introduced a voluntary, universal free pre-school year for children aged three years and two months and less than four years and seven months. For the year 2010/11, over 94% of eligible children were participating in the scheme (Dept. f Education & Skills, 2011). While it is compulsory for children to enter the primary education system at six years old, it is relevant to note that many children enter the system in the September, following their fourth birthday due to the lack of childcare provisions available. The Irish welfare state seems reliant on offering cash benefits rather than services especially for the youngest group of children 0-2 years (OECD, 2010). Pedagogy French, 2007 defines pedagogy as the practice or craft of teaching in the interactive process between teachers and learners and the learning nvironment which includes family and the community. Under Siolta, the national quality framework it is defined as the range of interactions to support the holistic development of children by embracing both care and education within settings. Denmark has a strong historical background in relation to the training of early care and education practitioners. The first training programme was implemented in 1885 for those working from the frobelian approach in education; this formed a basis for the two year study programme implemented in 1904. In 1992, an integrated training system was established to combine theory with practice. Those training to be social pedagogues complete three and a half year degree programme learning theoretical, culture based subjects and activity based subjects with stints in placement (OECD,2000). Ireland in comparison has yet to regulate for proper qualifications within the sector with only those working with pre-primary classes having the appropriate qualification Ã¢â¬â bachelor of education. In order for the pre-school year to be implemented room leaders must have a minimum qualification of a Level 5 major award in ECCE (Dept. of Education &Skills, 2011). Curriculum French, 2007, states that a curriculum being implemented in settings for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning should contain a Ã¢â¬Ëbody of knowledge with a clear set of goals and objectivesÃ¢â¬â¢. The National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) in 2004 wrote that curriculum refers to Ã¢â¬Å"all learning experiences, whether formal or informal, planned or unplanned, which contribute to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s developmentÃ¢â¬ . DenmarkÃ¢â¬â¢s curriculum for children aged 0-6 years is predominately play based and incorporates the holistic development of children. Children work in partnership with the pedagogues throughout daily life. The main aims of the curriculum are to ensure children learn and experience the natural environment while gaining a true understanding of the Danish and other cultures represented. In 2004, a new law of pedagogical curriculum to Ã¢â¬Å"support, lead and challenge the learning of childrenÃ¢â¬ was introduced (Starting Strong 2, 2006). This outlined that all centres had the responsibility to outline their own curriculums with the cooperation of staff and passed by the board of parents and local authorities, the aspect of learning was not to become too structured. Six dimensions of aims as themes are to be represented within the curriculum. These include personal competences, social competences, language, body and movement, nature and nature phenomena and cultural forms of expression and values (Brostrom, 2006).
Wednesday, October 9, 2019
To what extent did foreign intervention impact the Italian unification movement? Italy, 1870. The unification movement of Italy has just been completed, the movement that could not have been successful without the efforts of Italy itself. Though foreign intervention was a minimal part of the unification, and at times even more of an obstacle than aide, without the militaristic action, internal economic and political change within Italy, the unification would not have been sparked, much less completed as successfully as it was.One of the important factors that contributed to the successful unification of Italy, was the decision to take militaristic action by joining wars and invading states that were crucial to the completion of the unification and would benefit Italy in the long run. By making the decision to join the Crimean war, and therefore aiding France and Great Britain, not only did Piedmont make a name for itself among all of Europe, gaining respect and fame, but the benefits for Italy in the long run were also known by Cavour, the leader of Piedmont at that time.Just by making the decision to aide France and Great Britain, it demonstrates how aware Piedmont was of the benefits of joining the war, and how the future Italy, and its unification would be impacted through it. Additionally, in the midst of the unification, it was the leaders of Italy that decided to invade the Papal States, to eventually complete the unification of Italy.This proves that the efforts of Italy itself completed the unification, because if the Papal States were not invaded, then Rome still would not have been part of Italy and the unification would have remained uncompleted. In addition to the militaristic action that was taken by Italy, the internal economic change that occurred within the nation also sparked the unification of Italy by furthering Piedmont, and eventually the rest of ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s image of a state in the process of modernizing.The textile industries, such as t he wool, silk and cotton industries were prime examples of Piedmonts economic industrialization. By industrializing the state, more citizens were happily employed, thereby creating a sense of unity among the people. Additionally, the construction of the railways advanced communication, and this economic development would eventually lead to benefits similar to those in Great Britain and in France.This development was again one instituted by Italy, and contributed greatly to the unification of Italy. Finally, under CavourÃ¢â¬â¢s rule, trading treaties were signed with states such as France, Portugal, Britain and Belgium. Through these treaties, Italy was able to gain economic growth and support, resulting in import and export increases. Through these economic changes, the nation grew as a whole, and the citizens gained a greater sense of unity and recognition as a unified country from foreign states.And lastly, the political change that occurred under CavourÃ¢â¬â¢s rule within Ita ly also shows the measures Italy took to complete a successful unification. A large part of the new political changes that were occurring in Italy stemmed from the new leaders that were instituting them. Mazzini, Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel II and Cavour were all political figures that contributed to the unification of Italy, and without MazziniÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation, GaribaldiÃ¢â¬â¢s military strength, CavourÃ¢â¬â¢s brain or Victor Emmanuel II as King, the unification would not have been possible.Additionally, the statuto that was retained as a liberal constitution in Piedmont was an important factor in the unification, as it signifies the start of political freedom that began in Piedmont, and eventually spread throughout Italy. These ideas, which sparked the unification, could not have been put in place by any foreign nations. In conclusion, through the militaristic actions taken by Italy, in addition to the internal economic and political changes that occurred, it is clear that foreign intervention was not the cause of the successful unification movement that occurred in Italy.
Tuesday, October 8, 2019
Nursing Children and Childbearing Families - Essay Example It can also lead to abortion and still birth (RCOG, 2008). b) Folate supplementation prior to conception reduces the risk of neural tube defects like spina bifida. It is recommended to take this B-group vitamin, much before conception to third month of pregnancy. Seven out of ten cases of neural tube defects can be prevented by taking folate supplementation. It important to take folate before conception because neural tube formation occurs during initial weeks when pregnancy is most often not confirmed. The recommended dose for supplementation is 400 micrograms per day (RCOG, 2009). Question 2. a) Breast feeding has several advantages to the baby and the mother. Advantages to mother include decreased risk of certain diseases like osteoporosis and cancers, faster return of uterus to prepregnancy state, natural contraception and psychological sense of confidence as the mother provides completed nourishment for her baby. For the baby, the benefits include complete nutrition that is easi ly digestible, safe, warm and palatable, protection from infectious diseases because of presence of antibodies in the milk especially in the colostrum, enhancing of mother-child bonding and attachment and decrease in the risk of atopic dermatitis, asthma and other chronic illnesses. b) Breast feeding protects the babies from developing allergies. The main immune factor that is responsible for the benefits is a substance called secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) that's present in large amounts in colostrum. Babies fed on cow's milk or soy milk or even other formula feeds tend to have increased risk of allergies. The IgA forms a protective layer on the intestinal wass preventing undigested proteins from causing allergic reactions. Another important characteristic of breast milk that helps the baby is that it enhances cognitive development in infant because of breast-feeding, prolonged skin contact, the reduction in maternal stress with feeding, and the improved mother-infant interaction . Breast milk also has some brain growth factors which help in the growth of brain and development of intelligent skills (WHO, 2011). Question 3. a) Positive effects of early discharge include recovery of mother and child in a familiar atmosphere of home, decreased risk of iatrogenic infections and decreased health care costs (NICE, 2007). Negative effects include increased risk of readmission due to feeding problems, unopened bowels, reflux-related problems and neonatal jaundice and increased risk of mortality due to choking episodes and other illnesses like viral illness (NICE, 2007). b) Recovery in a familiar home environment decreases stress for the mother and also family members because of increased availability of resources and comfort at home. In the hospital, the child and mother can contract infections from other patients and this can increase the duration of hospital stay and health care costs. Feeding is not established until third or fourth day after delivery and feeding problems can be stressful both for the mother and the baby and can in turn lead to decreased milk production. This becomes a vicious cycle. Improper feeding techniques can cause choking in the baby or even hypoglycemic episodes. Presence in the hospital allows health professionals help the mother and tackle any complications immediately. Exaggerated physiological jaundice and jaundice due to ABO incompatibility are more often detected on the third or fourth da
Monday, October 7, 2019
Financila Performance and Positioning - Assignment Example A projected profit and loss account of Clinton Cards plc has also been included in this part to add to the analysis. Shareholders need to analyse the management's performance and efforts put into the company affairs through the financial results so as to realise its strengths and weaknesses. Riahi-Belkaoui (1998, p11) says, "the profitability ratios portray ability of the firm to efficiently use the capital committed by stockholders and lenders to generate revenues in excess of expenses". Therefore, the analysis for the shareholders has been done with the help of following profitability ratios: The above chart depicts the profitability ratios for Clinton Cards plc indicating the financial performance of the company over the last five years. Shareholders are interested in the company's profit records and being the real owners of the firms, they constantly need to appraise the company's performance. If the company is able to generate a stable profit for its shareholders out of its business activities, then it is said to be a good performer in the financial sense. The Gross Profit Margin Percentage evaluates the percentage of profit earned by a company on sales after the production and distribution activities (Mcmenamin, 1999). It shows how well the company manages its expenses so as to attain maximum profit out of its total sales. Clinton Card plc's gross profit ratio shows that the company is sustaining a stable profit margin with a slight increase in profitability. It further illuminates that the company manages to keep about 11% of its total sales revenue out of all the production and distribution expenses. This can also be inversely stated that the company loses about 89% of the total turnover in meeting cost of sales. The Net Profit ratio shows what percentage of profit a company earns on its sales (Mcmenamin, 1999). It reveals the profit retained by a company after accounting for its various operating costs. The difference between the company's net and gross profit ratios indicate the amount of profit foregone by them in the course of meeting various selling and administrative expenses. Thus the above graph shows that the company manages to retain about 6% of the total sales after accounting for various operating costs. The company's net profit margin is also rising sparingly at a stable rate showing the management's efficiency in managing costs. Riahi-Belkaoui (1998, p11) says that the return on capital employed ratio "indicates how efficiently the capital supplied by the common stockholders was employed within the firm". Clinton Card plc's return on capital employed ratio reveals that the company is having a slightly fluctuating rate of profit on the funds invested by the shareholders. However the rate of fluctuation is not high and thus the graph shows that the company gains profit as about 30% of the total equity funds. The return on asset ratio indicates the returns or profits generated after utilising the financial resources of the company determine the company's financial performance throughout the year (Meigs & Meigs, 1993). The company in consideration has had a significantly